Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Free Market vs Planned Economy Free Essays

A market economy is a monetary framework where the variables of creation, are exclusive, buyers and makers are inspired without anyone else premium, the degree of rivalry in the business sectors is high and assets are allotted through the value system. The definition is upheld by Lipsey (1992) who additionally express that choices about assets assignment are made with no focal course yet rather because of incalculable autonomous choice taken by singular makers buyers consequently in the market economy the people or market settles on a definitive choice in distribution of assets. Though the arranged economy is one in which the coordination of monetary movement so fundamental to the practicality and working of a mind boggling social economy is embraced through authoritative methods orders, mandates, targets and guidelines as opposed to by advertise system. We will compose a custom article test on Free Market versus Planned Economy or on the other hand any comparable point just for you Request Now The word reference. com characterized this financial framework as a communist monetary framework wherein creation and conveyance of merchandise and ventures are constrained by the legislature and industry is for the most part freely claimed. Arrangement of open merchandise These are products that are non contention in utilization and non excludability as insinuated by Stanlake (2000) He likewise included the instances of open merchandise which incorporates national protections, the police administration, flood control plans, road lighting, asphalts and open waste henceforth they frequently have enormous outside advantages comparative with private advantages. In a market economy, creation of open merchandise won't be given or is restricted on the grounds that makers can't retain the products for non â€payment since it is highly unlikely of estimating how much an individual devours, there is no reason for setting up a market cost. Anyway in an arranged economy there is arrangement of such products on the grounds that the administration settles on all choices on what is delivered. Lobby (2010) referenced that open merchandise can't be given secretly as a result of their non diminishability and non â€excludability that is shoppers take a complementary lift since nobody can be rejected from devouring them so it is practically outlandish for a private firm to get anybody to pay for an open decent. In an arranged economy the state can fund the arrangement of open merchandise like protection and police administration, by methods for tax collection and some of the time obtaining, neighborhood specialists give road lighting and flood control can be given by offering agreements to private area firms. Creation and utilization of legitimacy and fault products According to Lipsey (1992), merit merchandise are those products that the legislature constrains or urges individuals to devour, chiefly in light of the fact that people are supposed to be ignorant of the genuine advantages from expending them. He additionally included that bad marks products are those merchandise which the state precludes individuals to devour fundamentally in light of the fact that individual are supposed to be uninformed of the genuine damage they would endure by expending them. The most popular instances of legitimacy products are wellbeing, instruction frameworks, protection, immunization and safety belts. The arrangement of legitimacy merchandise in a free market economy tent to be under given since spending on merit products by the customer would be controlled by the private advantages got from them. Like in United State of America where the free market is polished, the general wellbeing framework traded off, individuals are encouraged to purchase medical coverage. The poor probably won't have the option to bear the cost of this and a few people may essentially choose not to trouble on the off chance that they feel especially wellbeing. In instances of safety belts purchasers may neglect to perceive their actual private advantages subsequently less interest and less flexibly in a free economy. The bad mark merchandise incorporate cigarettes, liquor and illicit medications. These are over devoured in a market framework since purchasers might be unconscious of the genuine expense of expending them which incorporates negative externalities. As featured by Hall (2010) an arranged economy there is an expansion in the creation and utilization of legitimacy products in light of the fact that the administration believes them to be exceptionally alluring for the government assistance of the residents. In this monetary framework the legislature has focal position to settle on choices on the wares to be delivered henceforth accentuation will be set on the creation of legitimacy products and utilization of negative marks will be diminished. The state can build the creation of legitimacy merchandise by giving free state instruction and national wellbeing administrations. Agreements for administrations like decline assortment can be given to private part firms. The administration can likewise support the utilization of legitimacy merchandise by giving data about the advantages of vaccination and passing enactment expecting vehicles to take and breeze through the vehicle review assessments. In the order economy creation and utilization of bad mark merchandise is decreased to lessen medical issues for the economy. The legislature accomplish this by burdening cigarettes and liquor vigorously and boycott every single risky medication to forestall utilization. Just as roviding data about their unsafe impacts to the purchasers. Customer sway Lipsey (1992:84) express that â€Å"market distribution are in some cases said to show buyer power that is to infer that the purchaser is top dog and chooses what will be produced† This was upheld by Stanlake (2000)who specifies that the opportunity of shopper decision is typically held to be the most significant in the free economy. It tends to be found that the purchaser has the control, just the items that the shopper needs are delivered. The more serious the market structure, the more force the shopper will have. There is a more significant level of purchaser sway in advertise economy than in arranged economies. The administration evaluates the kind of items it considers the people to need while in showcase economies makers are propel by benefit in this way they have the impetuses to react rapidly to change in purchaser inclinations. In a free market economy customers profit by lower cost products and better administrations since business are compelled to contend while in an arranged economy there is no opposition since the legislature is the main provider. Value in salary dispersion Equity is viewed as reasonableness. The market economy gives chances to individuals to procure pay and get riches however the open doors for gaining a salary are no similarly disseminate. Individuals don't have equivalent open doors in training. Some are additionally constrained in their ability to learn or they may have gained an aptitude just to discover the interest for that expertise is declining. On the off chance that one beginnings an existence with practically nothing, and don't get decent training, and afterward there will be next to no insurance from dejection. This separation in the free market economies mutilates income and can bring about individuals from minority gatherings and impaired procuring less for a similar work as capable. The market framework doesn't ensure that everybody will have a similar chance to aggregate riches and subsequently an imbalance. It is contended that the arranged economy can prompt increasingly approach circulation of salary and affluent since the creation factors are constrained by the state. An order economy strong not have the effectiveness and venture for the fruitful of numerous individuals yet at any rate the administration will attempt to ensure that no one falls through the security net. REFERENCES LIST Beardshaw,J. et. al (1998) Economics an understudy's guide,5th Edition, Prentice Hall. complete. Accessible at economy (got to 3July 2013) Hall, R. furthermore, Lebierman,M.(2010)Microeconomic standard and application,5th Edition,Cengage learning Lipsey, R. furthermore, Harbury, C.(1992)Principals of economics,2nd Edition, Oxford: Oxford college press. Lipsey, R. what's more, Chrystal, A.(1995)An prologue to positive financial matters ,8TH release, London: Oxford college press. Stanlake, G. also, Grant, S.(2000)Introductory financial matters, seventh Edition,London:Longman. Step by step instructions to refer to Free Market versus Planned Economy, Papers

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Veterans people to remember Essay Example For Students

Veterans individuals to recollect Essay Veterans individuals to recollect Essay This Veterans Day pays tribute to the individuals who carried out their responsibility as nationalists. It is our ethical obligation to cause them to feel acknowledged on Veterans Day. A little thing to approach in return for remarkable valor and dauntlessness. Numerous years our Nation has regarded Veterans and put aside an extraordinary day to pay tribute and state thank you to the individuals who serve in our Armed Forces. On this Veterans Day, Americans the nation over will respect and recollect their relatives, companions, and neighbors who served in our Nations military. No demonstration of citizenship is more deserving of regard than administration in our Armed Forces so as to secure and guard our standards and in light of the fact that the convention of the resident trooper is profoundly imbedded in our Nations history. Most Americans are favored to have companions, relatives, and associates whom they can by and by thank, on this noteworthy day, for their military assistance. Since the introduction of our Nation, American warriors, mariners, Marines and pilots have indicated valor, fortitude, and brave during wartime. Veterans Day is a suggestion to all of us of the penances they have made for our sake. Veterans Day is likewise a chance to perceive the difficulties confronted, and forfeits made, by the individuals who serve during what spends for peacetime in todays, and tomorrows, ever-changing the insecure world. The people who serve in our American Army are among our best and our most splendid. The numerous troopers who have taken a chance with their life toward the advantage of our nation have earned our regard and our much appreciated. Services, discourses, showing the banner, visiting veterans burial ground, investing energy with a veteran in a medical clinic these are altogether superb approaches to respect our veterans. Veterans and people in the military currently have ensured our nation and given us numerous rights as residents, the right to speak freely of discourse, casting a ballot, and a lot more that we can use at our willing. Without our veterans, we would not appreciate the rights that we so regularly underestimate. At last, I trust we all will respect Men and Women in Vietnam, Revolution, the universal wars, and others not referenced. Everybody should set away some time, for a couple of seconds on Veterans Day, and consistently, to recollect those a huge number of administration individuals, not with distress or lament, however with pride in the activity they did, and with humble thanks that America phenomenally great and better than average individuals. Veterans solicited next to no from their nation however gave all that they had. The least we can do is give them our sincerest thank you for an occupation all around done. There are maybe a great many veterans in the network family, companions, and others. Who merit a thank you on this extraordinary day. In the event that you value the opportunity, we, as Americans, appreciate today, and afterward you understand why its imperative to respect the individuals who yielded for that opportunity. .

Friday, August 21, 2020

DATA ANALYSIS PORTFOLIO OF WORK - Working Party Forum Questionnaire Essay

Information ANALYSIS PORTFOLIO OF WORK - Working Party Forum Questionnaire Canteen and Staff shop - Essay Example It is at this gathering where individuals favor the report and profit, investigate the spending plan and make recommendation on the best way to improve administrations offered by the container. As a major aspect of social government assistance course of action, the flask endeavors to give a modest elective taking care of program to representatives working. Notwithstanding, productivity is a key necessity as it an aggregate venture. Individuals take part in undertakings to make benefit despite the fact that it isn't significant that you understand benefit yearly (Stephen 2011). To help deals and increment benefits, the board proposed to individuals to permit it begins selling hot nourishment and open a staff shop during a working gathering discussion hung on 23rd December, 2011. As a custom, such new pursuit is exposed to look into after which the individuals intentional and follows up on discoveries and proposals of the report. To this end, the board looked for my administrations in directing a study on the proposition with center expectation of discovering the assessment of workforce in regards to the recommendations. Moreover, the investigation had the accompanying goals: To check the help possibly in support of hot nourishment and staff shop To decide fitting time for serving hot nourishment To decide the cost prone to be brought about by staff purchasing hot nourishment To discover the favored sort of hot nourishment and different classifications To build up an opportunity to open the shop and items to sell COLLECTION OF DATA The irregular inspecting method was utilized to choose a delegate populace. In arbitrary inspecting people are picked from study populace dependent on possibility (Leonard and Leonard 2009). This strategy guaranteed that every worker has an equivalent possibility of partaking in the overview and in this way not one-sided. The example was regarded to be a genuine delegate of the populace in light of the fact that in this technique the w ay toward thinking of an example depended on likelihood and not foreordained. The representatives were appointed numbers 1 to 510 as indicated by the manner in which the names show up in the finance. The numbers were entered in web based testing programming called randomizer (, which produced 142 novel numbers. The numbers were coordinated with finance numbers to choose representatives who spoke to different specialists in the study. The accompanying numbers were produced by randomizer: 290, 133, 42, 201, 181, 175, 369, 431, 39, 239, 445, 2, 150, 296, 67, 8, 6, 387, 308, 167, 25, 90, 444, 408, 266, 203, 208, 292, 1, 122, 97, 284, 101, 477, 34, 92, 93, 85, 155, 457, 193, 301, 306, 396, 79, 191, 270, 246, 38, 162, 134, 354, 96, 437, 390, 264, 281, 27, 447, 209, 169, 412, 501, 194, 312, 21, 280, 195, 158, 176, 83, 46, 33, 388, 438, 410, 110, 368, 321, 50, 329, 365, 115, 434, 339, 318, 479, 17, 88, 508, 229, 61, 361, 440, 95, 156, 343, 311, 424, 382, 331, 421, 327, 124, 1 54, 373, 453, 187, 330, 493, 397, 200, 293, 372, 336, 119, 126, 407, 159, 47, 143, 87, 254, 89, 4, 459, 64, 15, 358, 392, 252, 225, 65, 400, 352, 462, 433, 500, 232, 30, 40, 230. The workers comparing to a chose number were offered poll to fill and afterward return it to Forum Representative inside 7 days. Out of 142 polls gave, 123 were come back to the board of trustees. As the analyst, I investigated the filled surveys and acknowledged 114 to be utilized for systematic reason. This number means 22.4% reaction rate comparing to 8.1% mistake edge at 95% certainty level. This figure was determined utilizing on the web application ( by taking care of the example size and required certainty

Monday, June 1, 2020

Financial Analysis Of Oil And Gas Development Company Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Oxford brookes university provided an opportunity for an ACCA student to obtain a degree of BSC(hons) of applied accounting by passing the Oxford university research and analysis project.This is not only an opportunity to obtain a OBU degree but a chance to extend and improve my skill and as well as the practical application of my knowledge acquired during the CAT and ACCA. There are twenty topic given by the Oxford university.I have chosen the topic number eight The business and financial performance of an organisation over a three year period.The company I have chosen is OGDCL(oil and gas development company limited) and the year under consideration is 2008-2010. INTRODUCTION OF THE COMPANY OGDCL is the largest oil and gas company in has a monoply and stands with a government support.Being the national oil and gas company OGDCL holds the flagship of the countrys exploration and production will be worth noting that the company is a market leader in Pakistan,in terms of reserves,production and acreage.The company contributes 21% of Pakistans total natural gas production and 54%of its oil production.There are 75 OGDCL fields in Pakistan of which 45 fields are owned and operated while 30 fields are Non-operated.the company is also registered in London Stock Exchange in addition to countrys own major stock exchanges.The company is all set to ride the wave of EP activity.The company is with the vision of becoming the leading producer and supplier of oil and gas in the international market by using all the possible options including strategic treaty.Being the most stable company,sales revenue and profits of the company currently enhanced by 9% and 6.5% to Rs 142.572 billion and Rs 59.177 billion respectively. COMPANY HISTORY The government of pakistan established Oil and Gas Development Corporation(OGDCL)under an ordinance dated 20th september 1961 as a statutory corporation to undertake exploration and development of oil and gas resources.The company was converted into a public limited company in 1997 and renamed as Oil and Gas Development Company Limited(OGDCL). MOTIVATION TO CHOOSE THIS TOPIC My academic knowledge and prior understanding during my study of ACCA,regarding accounting and finance,is the key factor of motivation for me to choose the topic of financial statement and business analysis of the organization.Financial reporting,performance management and control and financial information management are the subjects which I have studied and which truly relate to the financial statement and business analysis.This project offers me to apply this knowledge and skills in a real business scenario. Reasons to choose the company I have selected this organizaton (OGDCL)for analysis because it is the largest and the most stable organization so far in the country.As it is also listed in the London stock exchange so,it seems more appropriate to choose this company for analysis because ACCA is also a qualification which has bais in UK so it will provide me the opportunity to analyze its financial position and financial performance in international context.Moreover,the monoply of the company in the field of Petroleum and Gas exploration and production enhanced my motivation to pursue the analysis project of the organization. RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVE 1 the primary objective of my report is to evaluate the financial performance of the company in context of overall business performance of OGDCL for the year 2008-2010 2 the research aim to provide the impartial and objective opinion on the financial as well as the business performance of the company. RESEARCH QUESTION 1 what actually is the business strategy of the OGDCL 2 what is the existing and preceding two financial position of the company 3 what factors affecting the financial and business performance of OGDCL during the period 2009 to 2010. 4 what are the implication of OGDCL future growth OVERALL RESEARCH FRAMEWORK AND TOOLS USED TO ANSWER THE RESEARCH QUESTION EVALUATION OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE In order to evaluate the financial performance of OGDCL the following tools are used in the report Ratio analysis Horizontal analysis Vertical analysis BUSSINESS EVALUATION The business strategy and growth prospect of the OGDCL is evaluated by the following two tools 1 porters model 2 swot model FINANCIAL ANALYSIS To evaluate the financial condition and performance of the company the financial analyst need a yardstick.The yardstick frequently ratio analysis. The limitation of accounting ratio is that it is based on accounting reality and ignores the economic realities. PROFITABILITY RATIO GROSS PROFIT MARGIN NET PROFIT MARGIN CAPITAL EMPLOYED RETURN ON EQUITY LIQUIDITY RATIO CURRENT RATIO QUICK RATIO EFFICIENCY RATIO DEBTORS TURNOVER DEBTORS IN DAYS CREDITORS DAYS NET ASSET TURNOVER INVESTMENT RATIO EARNING /SHARE INTEREST COVER DIVIDEND/SHARE PROFITABILITY RATIO GROSS PROFIT MARGIN A measure calculated by dividing gross profit by net sales.Gross profit is indication of firm ability to turn a dollar of sales into profit after the cost of good sold. Gross profit margin= gross profit/net sales 2008 2009 2010 Current Variance Current Variance Current variance 70% + 0.39 69.92% 70.57 +0.65 The above trend show that company maintain the gross profit ratio almost 70% during the three years.Although there is increase in sales 25% in year 2008,39% in year 2009 and 9% increase but the mcrcalo has been counter by the cost of goods sold with almost same percentage. GRAPH AND INDUSTRY AVERAGE NET PROFIT MARGIN Net income divided by net sales,a measure of management ability to carry a dollar of sales down to the bottom line for the stock holder,it also measures how well a company control its cost Net profit margin = net income/net sales 2008 2009 2010 Current 40 Deviation -6 Current 43 Deviation +3 Current 42 Deviation -1 Net profit margin In the year 2008,the company show the deviation of 6% in net profit margin,the downfall is mainly due to the tax litigation,the provision for the taxation of the company is 33 billion which is 118% more then the year 2007 There is a increase in 2009 by 3% this is due to increase in sale revenue by 4% and decrease in royalty as well as taxation expense by 12% and 25%. Although in year 2010 the sale have been by 9% but this increase is counter down by taxation,royalty and as well as the operation expenses.This is main cause of decrease in profit margin by 1%. GRAPH AND GROSS SECTION RETURN ON EQUITY INTEREST COVERAGE RATIO Interest coverage ratio is the ratio of earnings before interest and tax to the amount of interest charge for the period Interest coverage ratio give an insight into the ability of the company to service its debt 2008 2009 2010 Current Deviation Current deviation Current Deviation Interest coverage= PBIT/INTEREST EARNING PER SHARE Earnings per share represent the amount of profit earn by each ordinary share In a simple word it means the amount of profit available for the average shareholder EPS = PROFIT AFTER TAX/ACTUAL NUMBER OF SHARES 2008 2009 2010 Current 11.54 Deviation +.93 Current 12.91 Deviation +1.37 Current 13.76 Deviation +.85 The above trend shows the steady growth in the EPS.The reason for the growth is very obvious from the entitys financial statement that there is steady growth profit.The reason for growth has already been discussed in in the profitability ratio. The important point should be considered here that there is no change in equity ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦. GRAPH DIVIDEND /SHARE The amount of dividend received by the ordinary share is called dividend per share 2008 2009 2010 Current 9.50 Deviation +.50 Current 8.25 Deviation -1.25 Current 5.50 Deviation -2.75 The OGDCL have a decreasing trend since 2008,when you consider the following figure,this will obviously make it clear why the company has such decreasing trend,even though there is steady growth in profit. Dividend payout ratio 2008 2009 2010 92% 64% 40% The company has a policy to retain profit. ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO This ratio measures the managements efficiency in generating revenue from the net assets at disposal. If this ratio gives the higher result, the more the management is efficient in generating the revenue from their net assets. Net Asset turnover Year(XXXX) Percentage (%) 2008 87 2009 79 2010 70 Reasons for Decline Assets OGDCL Asset Turnover ratio decreases from the last three years, this is due to significant increase in value of its fixed assets, as from the financial results the increase in fixed assets is shown as in table below: Particulars 2008 2009 2010 Fixed Asset(Rs in Billion) 67.71 87.69 103.18 Current Assets(Rs in billion) 79.82 85.46 120.43 As shown in the table the highlighted figures tells us that the fixed assets are increasing 30% from 08 to 09 and 18% from 09 to 10 and therefore significantly increasing from 2008 to 2010 which will cause decrease in the asset turnover, Also we have seen that the value of current assets in the year 2010 will have an significant increase, as 41% increase from 09 to 10 , this will also affect the asset turnover. This company is not using its assets efficiently. Management efficiency is going to decline. Sales We will discuss also the value of sales which will also affect this ratio, but for this company the value of sales is not significantly affect this ratio as the sales revenue does not have any significant change in the last three years as shown in the table: Particulars 2008 2009 2010 Net Sales(Rs in Billion) 125.91 130.83 142.57 From the figures in the table showing that there is insignificant change in the value of sales in the year 2008 2009 due to this asset turnover will not effect because of these results. But in year 2010 the value of sales increases 9% which should affect the asset turnover but unfortunately in this year the value of fixed assets and current assets are increased too much that the effect of the sales is cancelled. Remedies for Good Asset turnover: The company should increase the value of its sales as much so that the increase in asset will not disturb the turnover. Alternatively, the company should dispose of some of its non useful assets and utilize fewer assets efficiently. CURRENT RATIO The current ratio measures the adequacy of current assets to meet the current liabilities as they fall due. Current Ratio Particulars 2008 2009 2010 Current ratio(times) 3.72 4.01 3.46 Reasons for Change As we know that these values of current ratios are extracted from the figures of current assets and current liabilities of the last three years, so we will discuss the change in the value of current assets and liabilities which will cause these ratios to change. Table shows the value of current assets and Current liabilities from the last three years. Particulars 2008 2009 2010 Current Asset(Rs in Billion) 79.82 85.46 120.43 Current Liabilities(Rs in Billion) 21.44 21.29 34.84 From the figures of 2008 2009 we have seen that value of current liability was not changing but only there is a change in the value of current assets which will cause the increase in current ratio in 2009. But in 2010 the current ratio declines which is due to greater increase in the value of current liabilities increases 67% while less increase in the current assets 41% which will results in lower current ratio. If the value of current assets increases much more than current liabilities than current ratio will increase, but this do not happen in this year. ACID TEST RATIO This is a part of current ratio and is found by comparing liquid resources i.e., cash and bank balance, readily saleable securities and book debt with current liabilities. A decline in this ratio indicates overtrading which, if serious , may land the company in difficulties. A good current ratio accompanied by a low quick ratio will indicate a disproportionately high investment in stocks. Acid test Ratio Quick ratio of OGDCL of the last three years is as follow in table: Particulars 2008 2009 2010 Quick ratio(times) 2.94 3.25 3.03 As shown in the table, the trend in the quick ratio is same as in the current ratio. So we should study the change in value of stock here. Stock levels in the last three years are as follows: Particulars 2008 2009 2010 Stock In trade(Rs in 000) 151,782 108,301 172,084 These results show that stock in trade decrease in the year 2009 which will result increase in the quick ratio in this year. As in the table stock in trade decreases 29% from 08 to 09 and suddenly 59% increase in the stock in trade from 09 to 10. DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO Debtors turnover ratio establishes the relationship between credit sales and accounts receivable. A high debtors turnover ratio will mean that debts are being collected efficiently. It is reliable measure of the time of cash flow from credit sales. A low debtor turnover ratio will tell us that management is performing inefficiently. Debtors turnover = Debtors turnover ratio of OGDCL of the last three years is shown in the table as follow: Particulars 2008 2009 2010 Debtors turnover ratio(times) 3.66 2.70 2.05 From the figures we have seen that from the last three years the debtors turnover ratio is going to decline. This will show that debts are not being collected efficiently. Hence it indicates a poor credit control. Reason for Decline There are several reasons for the declining debtors turnover ratio, for example we should discuss here the value of credit sales and account receivable (trade debts) figures The value of trade debts from the last three years are as follow: Particulars 2008 2009 2010 Trade Debts(Rs in 000) 40,705,299 56,140,092 82,992,291 From the figures we have seen that the value of debts from 2008 to 2010 is about 51% increase which is a huge increase in the value of debts this increase effect on the debtor turnover ratio to decline. The OGDCL,s management allowed his debts to increase which is showing their weak efficiency in their management. DEBTORS COLLECTION PERIOD It shows the number of days sale that remain uncollected on the average. On comparison with the official credit period, it would whether the debts are collected in time or not. Debtors collection period x 365 Debtors collection period of OGDCL from the last three years are as follow: Particulars 2008 2009 2010 Debtors Collection Period(Days) 100 135 178 From the debtors collection period there is 78% increase in days of which the debt is to be collected from the year 2008 to 2010, which is a huge increase and it shows us that debt of the company is collected in longer days in 2010 as compared to 2008. It will indicate the poor credit control of the company. Reason for Increase The reason for the great increase in the debtors collection period is due to the significant increase in the value of Trade debts which is 51% increase from 2008 to 2010. The figures are shown in the previous debtors turnover ratio. BUSINESS ANALYSIS Business analysis is the set of tasks and techniques used to work as a liaison among stakeholders in order to understand the structure, policies and operations of an organization, and to recommend solutions that enable the organization to achieve its goals. It involves understanding how organizations function to accomplish their purposes and defining the capabilities an organization to provide products and services to external stake holders. It includes the definition of organizational goals, how those goals connect to specific objective, determining the courses of action that an organization has to undertake to achieve those goals and objectives, and defining how the various organizational units and stake holders within and outside of that organization interact. Need to perform of a business analysis: Business analysis is performed to understand the current state of a company (OGDC) or to serve as a basis for the later identification of its business needs. It also defines and validate solutions that meet OGDCs business needs, goals and objectives. Techniques applied for business analysis: There are various business techniques used to carry out the analysis. The major ones used are: SWOT analysis: This is an effective business tool in carrying out a companys internal and external analysis. Companys internal analysis can be carried out looking at the Strengths and Weaknesses whereas external analysis requires looking at the Opportunities and Threats. OGDCLs Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats have been looked at in this analysis which are as follows: Strengths OGDCL is the largest oil and gas company in Pakistan. It has a monopoly and a great confidence in the Oil and Gas market due to Govt of Pakistans support. It is also listed on an International Stock Exchange. OGDC has Dynamic Strong Financial Position due to the experience of four decades. It holds nearby fifty blocks/ concession which are the enormous combination among other oil and gas companies in Pakistan. Paramount business locations which are found after long process. Best quality process and procedures. Experienced and technical workforce. Innovation of wells through expert Geologists. Confidence of the customers. The company is being expanded to other countries of the world like Yemen, Sudan, Iraq and Nigeria. Weaknesses Unsatisfied workforce: Recently there was a labour strike at OGDCL which affected lot of its business. Lack of marketing expertise. Undifferentiated products or services in relation to the competitors. Lack of coordination of operations. Government Influence. For employees there is a slow promotion process which reduces the performance. Lack of check and balance. Opportunities Moving into new market segments that offer improved profits. A developing market such as the Internet. Mergers, joint ventures or strategic alliances. A market vacated by an ineffective competitor. Large workshops for training and development. Support of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources. Better Competitive Position. Threats Fear of Privatization. Price wars with competitors. A competitor has a new, innovative product or service turns to tuff competition through globalization which brings the strong companies in Pakistan. Competitors have superior access to channels of distribution. POTERS FIVE FORCES MODEL ANALYSIS This model describes the OGDC in relation to its economic environment. The competitive position of an OGDC depends on five competitive forces. Together these forces determine the overall profit potential of the company. Although, looking at an individual firm , its ability to earn higher profit margins will be determined by weather or not it can manage the five forces more effectively than competitors. All five forces together provide a good overview of the company and can help to estimate OGDCLs further profit potential. The five forces are discussed one by one: Industrial Rivalry This describes the intensity of competition of a company between other companies. In case of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited the major competing companies are National Refinery Limited (NRL), Pak-Arab refinery limited (PARCO) and Pakistan Refinery Limited (PRL). They are competing with OGDCL on the basis of their products and pricing making it heard for any new rivals to enter. The rivalry is intense because the OGDC is equally sized enough among these companies. Therefore, the switching cost of OGDC is relatively low as the fixed cost is huge enough which encourage the competitors to fill unused capacity by price cutting. The switching cost in oil and gas industry is relatively low. Threat of Potential Substitute Threat of substitute exist in OGDC because the products demand is affected by the price change of a substitute product e.g. LNG substituting CNG. The price elasticity of oil and gas products like Petrol and CNG is affected by the substitute products because more substitutes are becoming available and the demand become more elastic since customers have more alternatives such as CNG, LPG, and LSD etc. Because of the availability of close substitute of oil and gas product the company may raise prices. While the threat of substitutes typically impacts OGDC through price competition, there are other concerns in accessing the threats of substitute like the substitutability of liquid oxygenated products and bio-fuels versus gas, oil and diesel. The Bargaining Power of The Buyers The major buyers of OGDCs products are Attock Petroleum Limited (APL), Pakistan State Oil Company LTD, Shell Pakistan LTD, Caltex Oil Pakistan LTD and Total Parco Pakistan LTD. The bargaining power of the buyers is weaker because they have the threat of forward integration by the producers like Saudi Arabian Oil Company (SAUDI ARAMCO), British Petroleum (BPP), etc who can take over their own distribution or retailing. Significant buyer switching cost which means buyer cannot easily switch to another product. Buyers are fragmented which means the buyers have no particular influence on product and producer supply critical portions of buyers input. The Bargaining Power of The Suppliers In opposition to OGDC the major suppliers of crude oil and natural gas are Saudi Arabian Oil Company (SAUDI ARAMCO), E.N.I Pakistan LTD, B.H.P Petroleum, Pakistan Petroleum Limited, Orient Petroleum International Private Limited (O.P.I (PVT) LTD), O.M.V Pakistan, and British Petroleum. Therefore, the suppliers are powerful they have an influence on producing industry such as selling raw material at a higher price to capture some of the industry profits. They can integrate forward. They have the information of their buyer. Threats of New Entrants Barriers to enter in Oil and Gas industry are arising from many sources. In case of OGDCLs which is Government holding company, barriers are taxes, freight margin, Petroleum Development Levy, patents and proprietarily knowledge. Note: Sources which were fruitful in analyzing the above described analysis are:

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Comparison of Oedipus the King and Death of a Salesman Essay

The elements of a play are setting, irony, plot, characters, and theme, which will be discussed in the essay. Oedipus the King opens in a Greek amphitheatre depicting the front of a Theban palace. Throughout the play, the setting remains constant. This changes to a more fast-paced play with different settings in different places in Death of a Salesman. Dramatic irony in Oedipus the King is evident throughout, which is similar to the latter play, but in a different form. In here, the irony is evident. Oedipus the King revolves around characters attempts to change their destiny (which fails) - Jocasta and Laiuss killing of Oedipus and Oedipuss flight from Corinth. Each time somebody tries to avert the future, the audience knows†¦show more content†¦Willy Loman is a troubled and misguided man - a salesman and a dreamer with an extreme preoccupation with his own definition of success. Willy feels that physical impact is greater than the elements of his self-defined success. However, it is apparent that Willy Loman is no successful man, even by the audiences standards. He is still a travelling salesman in his sixties with no stable location or occupation, but clings on to his dreams and ideals. He compares his sons with Bernard, using him as a gauge of success. Nonetheless, he stays in the belief that his sons are better than B ernard. Willy recollects the neighbourhood years ago, and reminisces working for Frank Wagner, although he was also in the same condition then as now. He feels that the older Wagner appreciated him more, yet it was himself who voted Howard in. Arthur Miller presents Willy as a man with great bravado but little energy left to support it. He is always tired and has dementia, contradicting himself in his conversations and showing some memory loss, living in his world of illusions and delusions. He argues with Biff, both men without knowing why. The two sons of Willy display the physical appearance of adulthood, but their talk and attitude displays immaturity. Billy finds that he is a failure because of his lack of `success, while Happy thinks he is unfulfilled because he lacks failure. The plot of Oedipus the King is straightforward, whichShow MoreRelatedComparison Essay Between Oedipus the King and Death of a Salesman1402 Words   |  6 Pagesgoes an old saying, â€Å"All anyone asks for is a chance to work with pride.† Well, it seems that some people work with almost too much pride. In order to consider the extent to which pride applies to Sophocles Oedipus The King and Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman, consider the following: Oedipus and Willy both take extreme pride in their professions, their pride blinds them from seeing the truth of their situations, and their pride ultimately leads to their own demise/downfall, all of these invokingRead More Comparing the Tragedies of Hamlet, Oedipus the King, and Death of a Salesman1023 Words   |  5 PagesComparing the Tragedies of Hamlet, Oedipus the King, and Death of a Salesman The tragedies Hamlet, Oedipus the King, and Death of a Salesman have strikingly different plots and characters; however, each play shares common elements in its resolution. The events in the plays’ closings derive from a tragic flaw possessed by the protagonist in each play. The downfall of each protagonist is caused by his inability to effectively cope with his tragic flaw. The various similarities in the closingRead MoreComparing Shakespeare s Oedipus The King And Death Of A Salesman 1738 Words   |  7 Pagessorrowful or disastrous conclusion that elicits pity or terror. Two such examples of literary tragedies are â€Å"Oedipus the King† by Sophocles and â€Å"Death of a Salesman† by Arthur Miller. Although written over 2000 years apart, there are many similarities between the two literary works, but with varying degrees of differences as well. Some of the key areas to be examined when making this comparison are: the social status of the main charac ters, the psychological mindsets the characters are in, their respectiveRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Tragedy Essay1428 Words   |  6 Pageschanges one’s viewpoint on how to handle situations. The two stories that we will compare and contrast are Oedipus the King by Sophocles and Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller. Comparison In these two epic tragedies, there are a few commonalities or similarities that I feel are important to the reactions of the main characters or tragic heroes, Oedipus the King and Willy the Salesman. Throughout both stories, the reader can follow that the two characters are strong and proud family menRead MoreQuest For Literary Form : The Greeks Believed That The Tragedy1742 Words   |  7 Pages(Miller, Pp. 1831) He explained reasons for publishing â€Å"Death of a Salesman† and claimed that he instilled his character with a combination of feelings and experiences such as grief, unhappiness and little heroic acts. He represented the typical American common man with his tussles to achieve his American dreams that becomes his tragedy. (Miller, Pp. 1832) Miller considers that the common man is as suitable as kings were the focus for tragedies in its uppermost sense. (MillerRead More Willy Loman as Tragic Hero of Death of a Salesman Essay1519 Words   |  7 PagesWilly Loman as Tragic Hero of Death of a Salesman       Willy Loman, the title character of the play, Death of Salesman, exhibits all the characteristics of a modern tragic hero. This essay will support this thesis by drawing on examples from Medea by Euripedes, Poetics by Aristotle, Oedipus Rex by Sophocles, and Shakespeares Julius Caesar, while comments by Moss, Gordon, and Nourse reinforce the thesis.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Death of Salesman, by Arthur Miller, fits the characteristics of classicRead MoreWilly Loman as a Tragic Hero in Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman1218 Words   |  5 PagesWilly Loman as a Tragic Hero in Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman Should Willy Loman of Arthur Millers classic, Death of a Salesman be regarded as a tragic hero, or merely a working-class, socially inadequate failure? Described by Miller as a self-destructive, insecure anti-hero, it seems almost impossible for Loman to be what is known as a tragic hero in the classical sense, but with the inclusion of other factors he maybe a tragic hero, at least in the modernRead MoreEssay Prompts4057 Words   |  17 Pagesunderstanding of the work as a whole. Avoid mere plot summary. You may select a work from the list below or another novel or play of comparable literary merit. Alias Grace Middlemarch All the King’s Men Moby-Dick Candide Obasan Death of a Salesman Oedipus Rex Doctor Faustus Orlando Don Quixote A portrait of the Artist as a Young Man A Gesture Life Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead Ghosts The Scarlet LetterRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesSUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL 24 Diagnostic Survey and Exercises 24 Personal Assessment of Management Skills (PAMS) 24 What Does It Take to Be an Effective Manager? 28 SSS Software In-Basket Exercise 30 SCORING KEY AND COMPARISON DATA 42 Personal Assessment of Management Skills 42 Scoring Key 42 Comparison Data 42 What Does It Take to Be an Effective Manager? 43 SSS Software In-Basket Exercise 43 PART I 1 PERSONAL SKILLS 44 45 DEVELOPING SELF-AWARENESS SKILL ASSESSMENT 46 Diagnostic Surveys for

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Machiavelli s The Prince And Utopia - 1964 Words

Human nature is what human beings are born to have certain common characteristics in psychology and behaviors that human beings uphold as the common traits of humankinds. Machiavelli and Thomas More were two influential humanists during the period of Renaissance, and both are the authors of The Prince and Utopia respectively. Thomas More and Machiavelli used different ways to address their thoughts on human nature. More created a perfect and equal Utopian community to synchronize Utopians thoughts and human nature; at the same time, Machiavelli taught human beings how to react and deal with the human nature, which they were born with. On one hand, Thomas More used an ideal community with equal and fair social and political approaches to equalize different human nature of the Utopians on the positive perspective; on the other hand, Machiavelli discussed about human nature through his advices to the princes to be flexible enough to go against human nature by sometimes being non-virtuou sly, yet to fulfill good wills of their people to maintain their power, status and reign. Machiavelli believed some traits are intrinsic in human nature. People were selfish and put themselves in the first priority. Human beings’ concerns were mainly on property and honor. (Machiavelli 50) Machiavelli saw the intrinsic humanity traits and based on that, he made advises to the prince. A ruler should always put his first priority to the things that he had to complete in order to maintain his powerShow MoreRelatedThe Transformative Works Of Niccolo Machiavelli s The Prince ( 1532 ) And Thomas More s Utopia1359 Words   |  6 PagesThe transformative works Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince (1532) and Thomas More’s Utopia (1516) display vastly different opinions and perspectives on the relationship between virtue and politics, however some minor similarities between the two works can be noted. The Prince and Utopia create significant contributions to political theory offering different central claims on virtue and its relationship with politics. Another major point of difference between the two texts is the place that war hasRead More A Compare and Contrast of Thomas Moores Utopia and Machiavelli?s The Prince1482 Words   |  6 Pagesthat if you are kind and just you will excel and be successful. But life’s not fair and being just doesn’t necessary mean that a society will stand the test of time and be able to grow. The two different societies introduced in More’s Utopia and Machiavelli’s The Prince are very different and although More’s Utopian society would be considered more just then Machiavelli’s society. Machiavelli’s society is more realistic and more likely to be viable. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Leadership is a majorRead MoreSir Thomas More s Utopia And Niccolo Machiavelli s The Prince1454 Words   |  6 PagesSir Thomas More’s Utopia and Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince reflect the ideals of the Renaissance. Their reflections of the Renaissance are similar; however, their representations of the Renaissance also have distinct differences. The Renaissance or â€Å"rebirth† was a cultural movement that accompanied the passage of Europe from the Middle Ages to modern times. Niccolo Machiavelli was an Italian civic humanist, historian, diplomat, philosopher, politician, and writer during the Renaissance. He appliedRead More Analysis of Mores The Prince and Utopia Essay1545 Words   |  7 PagesLondon he started writing the book Utopia and finishing it 1516. After writing the book he was appointed as the privy councilor to King Henry VIII in 1518. He was latter executed in 1535 for refusing King Henry VIII to be the head of the ch urch. Utopia is a fictional book about Mores talk with Raphael Nonsenso and his travels to Utopia. Niccolo Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy in 1469 to a middleclass family. The time in which Machiavelli lived Italy as a country was notRead More Machiavelli And Plato Essay1564 Words   |  7 Pages Niccolio Machiavelli (Born May 3rd, 1469 amp;#8211; 1527 Florence, Italy.) His writings have been the source of dispute amongst scholars due to the ambiguity of his analogy of the amp;#8216;Nature of Politics; and the implication of morality. The Prince, has been criticised due to itamp;#8217;s seemingly amoral political suggestiveness, however after further scrutiny of other works such as The Discourses, one can argue that it was Machiavelliamp;#8217;s intention to infact imply a positiveRead More Machiavelli Essay953 Words   |  4 PagesThe Prince MAJOR THEME Machiavelli had a true and abiding love for Florence. He wanted to make Florence great and also find himself a job, as he lost his when the Medici family came into power. He dedicated his book on political science, The Prince, to Lorenzo Medici in the hopes that Lorenzo would be impressed and offer him a job. However, Lorenzo ignored the book and Machiavelli. The Prince is a didactic examination of political power, how to achieve it, maintain it, and expand it. MachiavelliRead MoreThe Reformation And Its Impact On The Early Modern Period1622 Words   |  7 Pagessuch as Sir Thomas More. More s use of political discourse came in the form of Utopia, a piece of writing that was highly critical of the King of England and the country itself due to More s personal experience as a counsellor1. Although Utopia was published before the Reformation, it is clear that More had an idea on how the country should be ran and how the King should be responsible for holding it and religion together. This created the foundations for More s hatred towards the Protestant ReformationRead MoreMachiavelli And Humanism930 Words   |  4 Pagesamoral perspective, betrayal is unavoidable and comes with its own set of benefits. This is Machiavelli’s view in his 1513 work The Prince, in which he details the complexities of gaining and maintaining political p ower to his Italian statesman Lorenzo de’ Medici, from whom he hopes to regain a political position after shifts in the unstable Florentine republic. Machiavelli argues that people, particularly political leaders, should have flexible moral codes so that they can bend them when necessary.Read MoreMachiavelli s The Prince 850 Words   |  4 PagesPolitics and Lit. (p.7) 10/17/2003 Machiavelli s breakthrough: Sacrifice History s most prominent leaders have shown extreme congruence. These leaders almost always hold reality over ethics. How can we classify lying and manipulative leaders as immoral when their duplicity is the very reason a society can maintain stability? This idea has of means justifying the ends has been a staple in History s most prosperous of societies. Machiavelli s novel The Prince was the first stab at understandingRead MoreJohn Locke s Views On Private Property And Politics1133 Words   |  5 PagesEach Philosopher in the early modern world has different perspectives regarding private property and politics in society. Although John Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, and Karl Marx/Frederick Engels are from different times their criticism are crucial onto the world. Being from different eras gives them a unique perspective of how one should rule or govern. Each philosopher displays his own ideas and can seemingly disagree with one another in their methods of government. Therefore when issues of malicious

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Automatic Traffic Light Control(Presidency University) free essay sample

Azimur Rahman Schooll of Engineering Presidency University Design and Implementation of Automatic Traffic Light Controlled System Approval â€Å"Design and Implementation of Automatic Traffic Light Controlled Syetem† was prepared and submitted by Md. Humaun Kabir (ID:091-033-040),Amam hossain Bagdadee(ID:101-205-041),Md. Rabiul Islam(ID:091-033-040),Md. Nurul Alam(ID:071-012-040) and as been found satisfactory in terms of scope ,quality and presentation as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic Engineering in Presidency University. Cheeked and approved by Thesis Supervisor . Professor Dr. Tapon Kumar Chakraborty Dean and Department Head Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Azimur Rahman School of Engineering Presidency University Design and Implementation of Automatic Traffic Light Controlled System Acknowledgement Dreams never turn to reality unless a lot of effort and hard work   is put in to it. And no effort bears fruit in the absence of support  and guidance. It takes a lot of effort to work your way through   this goal and having someone to guide you and help you is   always a blessing. We would like to take this opportunity to thank  a few who were closely involved in the completion of this  project. Ingenuity and popular guidance are inevitable for  successful completion of a project. We are indebted to all sources   that helped them in working out this project at each steps of its   progress. Particular we extremely grateful to Project Supervisor Professor Dr. Tapan Kumar Chakraborty, Department of Electrical amp; Computer Engineering for his valuable   suggestion and proper guidance to complete my project. Above   all we thank the lord almighty for giving me all the confidence and ability to achieve this dream ! Design and Implementation of Automatic Traffic Light Controlled System Abstract Traffic signal controlled is playing more and more important roles in modern management and controls of urban traffic to reduce the accident and traffic jam in road. The gas lantern was turned with a lever at its base so that the appropriate light faced traffic. Unfortunately, it exploded on 2 January1869, in during the policeman who was operating it. The modern electric traffic light is an American invention. As early as 1912 in Salt Lake City, Utah, policeman Lester Wire invented the first red-green electric traffic lights. On5 August1914,theAmerican Traffic Signal Company installed a traffic signal system on the corner of East 105th Street and Euclid Avenue in Cleveland,Ohio. It had two colors, red and green, and abuzzer,based on the design of James Huge, to provide a warning for color changes. The design by James Hog allowed police and fire stations to control the signals in case of  emergency. The first four-way, three-color traffic light was created by police officer William PottsinDetroit, Michigan in 1920. In 1923, Garrett Morgan attended a traffic signal device. It was Morgans experience while driving along the streets of Cleveland that led to his invention of a traffic signal device. Ashville, Ohio claims to be the location of the oldest Working traffic light in the United States, used at an intersection of public roads until 1982 when it was moved to local museum. The first inter connected traffic signal system was installed inSaltLake City in 1917, with six connected inter sections controlled simultaneously from a manual switch. Automatic control of  inter connected traffic lights was introduced March 1922 in Houston, Texas. The first automatic experimental traffic lights in England were deployed inWolverhamptonin 1927. Ape-man chenpedestrian traffic signals have come to be seen as a nostalgic sign for the former German Democratic Republic. The color of the traffic lights representing stop and go are likely derived from those used to identify port (red) and starboard (green) in maritime rules governing right of way, where the vessel on the left must stop for the one crossing on the right. Figure: 4 Lanes Road. TECHNOLOGY Optics and lighting:- In the mid-1990s, cost-effective traffic light lamps using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were developed; prior to this date traffic lights were designed usingincandescentorhalogenlight bulbs. Unlike the incandescent-based lamps, which use a single large bulb, the LED-based lamps consist of an array of LED elements, arranged in various patterns. When viewed from a distance, the array appears as a continuous light source. LED-based lamps (or lenses) have numerous advantages over in candescent lamps; among them are: †¢Much greater energy efficiency (can be solar-powered). †¢Much longer lifetime between replacements, measured in years rather than months. Part of the longer life time is due to the fact that some light is still displayed even if some of the LEDs in the array are dead. Brighter illumination with better contrast against direct sunlight, also called phantom light. †¢The ability to display multiple colors and patterns from the same lamp. Individual LED elements can be enabled or disabled and different color LEDs can be mixed in the same lamp †¢Much faster switching. †¢Instead of sudden burn-out like incandescent-based lights, LED start to g radually dim when they wear out, warning transportation maintenance departments well in advance as to when to change the light. Occasionally, particularly in green LED units, segments prone to failure will flicker rapidly beforehand. The operational expenses of LED-based signals are far lower than equivalent incandescent-based lights. As a result, most new traffic light deployments in the United States, Canada and elsewhere have been implemented using LED-based lamps; in addition many existing deployments of incandescent traffic lights are being replaced. In2006, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada completed a total refit to LED-based lamps in the cities over 12,000 Intersections and all pedestrian crosswalks. Many of the more exotic traffic signals discussed on this page would not be possible to construct without using LED technology. However, color-changing LEDs are in their infancy and may surpass the multi-color array technology. In some areas, LED-based signals have been fitted (or retrofitted) with special Fresnel lenses (Programmed Visibility or PV lenses) and/or diffusers to Limit the line of sight to a single lane. These signals typically have a projector-like visibility; and maintain an intentionally limited range of view. Because the LED lights don’t generate a significant amount of heat, heaters may be necessary in areas which receive snow, where snow can accumulate within the lens area and limit the visibility of the indications. Another new LED technology is the use of CLS (Central Light Source) optics. These comprise around 7 high-output LEDs (sometimes 1 watt) at the rear of the lens, with a diffuser to even outland enlarge the light. This gives a uniform appearance, more like traditional halogen or incandescent luminaries. Replacing halogen or incandescent reflector and bulb assemblies behind the lens with an LED array can give the same effect. This also has its benefits: minimal disruption, minimal work, minimal cost and the reduced need to replace the entire signal head (housing). THE PROJECT Design of Traffic-Control System: Through the project ‘Advanced Vehicles and Vehicle-Control Knowledge Centre’, the Hungarian National Office for Research and Technology supports the design of intelligent traffic-control systems. The main goal of the project is to interlace technological transfer by connecting universities, research centers and leading industrial partners. Automotive technologies are gaining ground in modern road traffic-control systems, since the number of road vehicles and passengers is rapidly growing. There is a perpetual need for safety-critical traffic automation, and traffic engineering makes the dynamic or static analysis and the synthesis of automotive vehicle technologies possible. The main goal of engineering is the planning and management of traffic systems. The project supports the development of reliable and optimal control structures for urban traffic and for motorway systems. The intelligent and cooperative set-up of actuation and its linkage to the central control system is vital for avoiding traffic jams and accidents. Moreover, environmental costs (e. g. pollution) can be decreased. The control architecture of systemic shown in Figure 1. | Figure 1: General traffic management and control structure. | | One aspect of the project aims at developing a traffic control algorithm for future technology. The design of the traffic control system can be evaluated in two steps – synthesis and analysis. Several models and multiple control strategies exist, and engineers must decide between them using a priori knowledge of the real system. Previously collected information can help to choose the appropriate model, parameters, measurement and control methodologies to create the optimal solution. In many cases, control-related variables are almost inaccessible for design unless estimation techniques are applied. In a situation like this, the approximation, computer-based estimation of the variables could be useful. Traffic simulations can be classified in several ways, including the division between microscopic, macroscopic and macroscopic, and between continuous and discrete time approaches. The methodologies of static and dynamic analysis of traffic systems are known. Several state variables, derived from the description of the dynamic system, can be used for operational and planning aspects. A newly emerged area is demand estimation through microscopic traffic modeling. The dynamic aspect of traffic simulation requires previously measured or estimated volumes of traffic. Since the measurement of certain variables in the dynamic description is rather costly, one tries to estimate them. For instance, the observation of constantly varying turning rates at a simple intersection is fairly costly. However, the number of turning vehicles could be applied to traffic light harmonization, or generally speaking to traffic light control. | Figure 2: Traffic jam in Dhaka City. | | Some time has passed since traffic issues were first addressed; in fact, traffic lights apparently existed a century ago. When they were first introduced, their purpose was to ensure the safety of people in the traffic, but as time has passed and traffic has become denser, flow-control issues have become important. Nowadays, control algorithms are extremely complicated, and take traffic-dependent light-control architectures into account. Nevertheless, complementary functions exist to augment the intelligence of such systems. The behavior of traffic is influenced by two main factors: the control inputs and the disturbances incurred. The control inputs are directly related to corresponding control devices such as traffic lights and variable message signs. The manipulation of disturbance Values is not possible, but in some cases they are measurable (e. g. demand), detectable (e. g. ncident) or predictable over a certain time horizon. The most challenging issues relate to automatic incident detection, the modeling of uncertainties, providing a solution that offers robustness under external disturbances, the use of variable message signs in order to avoid traffic jams, and finding an optimal itinerary. The development of an intelligent control structure ensures an optimal solution for all participan ts in the transportation and road traffic system. After the first year, the most significant result of the project is the structural analysis of the references. Several comparative studies have been elaborated to create a basis for further research on estimation and optimal light-control systems. Objective: The goal of this project is to given opportunity to practice designing and implementing sequential machine in this case, a traffic light controller. In this project, intergated circuit(IC’s) was chosen to design to traffic controller. The purpose of this project is to design an automatic, save and efficient traffic flow to assign the right way of the road. This project it was needed to design traffic control signals and implement to ensure whether this circuit is functioning or not. From that decrease a waiting time in road can reduce traffic jam in the road. The expected results of this project are three lanes can green other lanes are red at the same time. The result of this project can implemented with bulbs. (RED,YELLOW,GREEN) Components Required 1. Integrated Circuit 1. IC-1 (555) 2. IC-2 (CD4017) 1. Resistors 3. R1 (10K) 4. VR1 (100K) 2. Capacitor 5. C1 (100mfd/ 16V) 3. Diode 6. D1-D9 (IN4007) 4. Transistor 7. T1 (BC148) 8. T2 (BC148) 9. T3 (BC148) 5. Miscellaneous 10. Three Relays 11. Battery (9V DC) 12. Neon lamp 13. Flexible wires 14. Soldering rod etc. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Figure: Circuit Diagram of Traffic System. Circuit Layout: Figure: Circuit Layout of Traffic System. PCB LAWOUT: Figure: PCB Layout of Traffic Signal. The working Principle: This circuit is self explanatory by its name, and can be used to control traffic in public places, or to demonstrate traffic rules in traffic-parks. IC2, which is heart of the circuit, is a decade counter. In this counter for every pulse fed to pin-14, potential keeps shifting from D1 to D9 in cyclic order. IC1 is used as a pulse generator and generates pulses in regular configurable intervals. These intervals can be changed by varying VR1. The circuit is designed in such a way that out of nine pulses, relay RL1 remains triggered for 4 pulses, relay RL2 for 1 pulse and relay RL3 for remaining 4 pulses. Since D1-D4 provide current to T1, T1 is on whenever there is potential on any diode D1 to D4, which keeps relay RL1 triggered. Similarly other diodes are responsible for RL2 and RL3 triggering. Red, Yellow and Green lamps can be connected to the relays RL1, RL2 and RL3 respectively to complete your mini traffic light controller. Figure: 4-Lane Road Traffic Signal Planning. DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS: 555 Timers –IC It is basically an 8–pin timer IC, which can produce precise time delay. It works on wide range of power supply voltage from 3V to 18V. The function of each pin of the IC is given below – * Pin–1: it is connected to ground (0V) terminal of power supply. * Pin–2: It starts up timing cycle, when its voltage is less than ? Vcc, the output of IC becomes high (1). * Pin–3: it is output pin which either source or sinks current up to 200mA. * Pin–4: it is reset pin. When it is + ve, IC works normally. However, when it is –ve, IC stops its working completely. * Pin–5: control voltage pin. It may not be used in normal working. * Pin–6: it is threshold pin. It finalizes the timing cycle of the IC, when its voltage is equal to or greater than ? Vcc, the output of IC becomes low (0). * Pin–7: it is discharge pin. It discharges external capacitor into itself. * Pin–8: it is connected to + ve terminal of battery, generally 3–18V. When the trigger is applied (i. e. switch is closed), the Trigger terminal (inserting terminal of lower comparator) is directly connected to the ground(0V). This toggles the output of lower comparator from LOW to HIGH. So the SET terminal of FLIPFLOP is at HIGH, toggling the Q to LOW. The output is Figure: 555timer output with high frequency Figure: 555timer output with high frequency 4017 Decade Counter: The count advances as the clock input becomes high (on the rising-edge). Each output Q0-Q9 goes high in turn as counting advances. For some functions (such as flash sequences) outputs may be combined using  diodes. The reset input should be low (0V) for normal operation (counting 0-9). When high it resets the count to zero (Q0 high). This can be done manually with a switch between reset and +Vs and a 10k resistor between reset and 0V. Counting to less than 9 is achieved by connecting the relevant output (Q0-Q9) to reset, for example to count 0,1,2,3 connect Q4 to reset. The disable input should be low (0V) for normal operation. When high it disables counting so that clock pulses are ignored and the count is kept constant. The ? 10 output is high for counts 0-4 and low for 5-9, so it provides an output at 1/10 of the clock frequency. It can be used to drive the clock input of another 4017 (to count the tens). Resistor: A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistors terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistors terminals to the intensity of current through the circuit is called resistance. This relation is represented by Ohms law: Figure: Symbol of Resistror. Capacitor: A capacitor (originally known as condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator); for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of charge  ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them: Figure: Symbol of Capacitor. Transistor: A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistors terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuit Figure :Symbol of Transisitor. RELAY: A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. Figure: Symbol of Relay Traffic light is saved by the Pest Repellent: Things you will need†¢ IC 555 – 1 no. †¢ Resistors- R1 – 470k- R2 – 100 ohms, R3 – 100 ohms, R4, R5 – 1k, R6 – 47 ohms, †¢ LED – 1 no, Capacitors, †¢ Speaker – 1 no, C1 – 10 ? F / 25V (Electrolytic), C2 – 1000 ? F / 25V (Electronic), C3 – 0. 01 ? F (Ceramic), Battery, †¢ Speaker – 1 no, 9V and battery snap (1 no. ), †¢ LED – 1 no, †¢ Speaker – 1 no, †¢ Soldering iron and alloy. The ultrasonic pest repellent device available on the market but a major drawback is that their power output is low and their effectiveness suffers. This electronic pest repellent generates powerful ultrasonic signals to repel pests. That’s reason we can protect our traffic light by this device. In summer season, pest is attracted by light at night. That’s reason lights are unable to through their full focus. That’s reason we add pest repellent with Traffic Light. Advantage of Traffic Light Controller: The following is from section 4B. 3 of the Ohio Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices: When properly used, traffic control signals are valuable devices for the control of vehicular and pedestrian traffic. They assign the right-of-way to the various traffic movements and thereby profoundly influence traffic flow. Traffic control signals that are properly designed, located, operated, and maintained will have one or more of the following advantages: A. They provid e for the orderly movement of traffic. B. They increase the traffic-handling capacity of the intersection if: 1. Proper physical layouts and control measures are used, and 2. The signal operational parameters are reviewed and updated (in needed) on a regular basis (as engineering judgment determines that significant traffic flow and/or land use changes have occurred) to maximize the ability of the traffic control signal to satisfy current traffic demands. C. They reduce the frequency and severity of certain types of crashes, especially right-angle collisions. D. They are coordinated to provide for continuous or nearly continuous movement of traffic at a definite speed along a given route under favorable conditions. E. They are used to interrupt heavy traffic at intervals to permit other traffic, vehicular or pedestrian, to cross. Traffic control signals are often considered a panacea for all traffic problems at intersections. This belief has led to traffic control signals being installed at many locations where they are not needed, adversely affecting the safety and efficiency of vehicular, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic. Traffic control signals, even when justified by traffic and roadway conditions, can be ill-designed, ineffectively placed, improperly operated, or poorly maintained. Improper or unjustified traffic control signals can result in one or more of the following disadvantages: A. Excessive delay; B. Excessive disobedience of the signal indications;   C. Increased use of less adequate routes as road users attempt to avoid the traffic control signals; and   D. Significant increases in the frequency of collisions (especially rear-end collisions). CONCLUSION: Often the District is contacted by citizens that believe that traffic signal have many advantages and no disadvantages. While traffic signals can help